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Dr. T.Umar Sadiq


South Indian Islam is predominantly influenced by Sufi Movement. The Sufi Movement in Tamil Nadu is a socio-cultural Movement which incorporated the Islamic mysticism and Hindu tradition stands for social harmony, religious tolerance and cultural integration. The spread of Islam in Tamil country was associated with the expansion of maritime trade network. The Arabs established the trade links even before the advent of Islam in Arabia. The Arab traders established their early settlements in the coastal region such as Pulicat, Nagapattinam, Nagore, Kayalpattinam, Kilakkari, Porto Nova and Athiramapattinam. The Muslim settlements were established in coastal region through intermarriage of the native women with the Arab migrants and merchants. These places became the centres of Islamic faith in South India. Through the traders, the companions of Prophet and Sufi saints from Middle East came to these regions to propagate Islamic faith in Tamil Country. The Sufi missionaries and mystic movement had able to convert the local population through their liberal preaching and simple approach. The present study is aimed to trace the impact Sufism on Tamil society, culture and literature.

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Asadullah Khan, History of the Arab contact with Tamilagam from the Beginning upto 1400 AD,

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A Khanqah is a Persian word meaning a house or abode of Sufis and Dervishes.

The tomb or shrine of a Muslim Saint.

Official custodians of Sufi Shrines or Dargahs.

Max Horton, IndischeStromungon in der Islamischen Mystic, Heidelberg, 1927, pp.17-25.

The Sufi doctrine or path of spiritual learning, a school or order of Sufism.

Edgar Thurston, Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Vol IV, Madras, 1909, P. 199, Also see

M.R.M.Abdur Rahim, IslamiyaKalaikkalanjiyam, Vol II Madras, 1977, p.634.

Qadir Hussain Khan, South Indian Musalmans, Madras, 1910, pp.71-72

A system of religious veneration and devotion directed towards a particular figure or object.

A.L. Sri Vastava, Medieval Indian culture, Agra, 1964, pp.261-262

Quran, Sura-i-Yusuf, ParaXII

Madurai District Gazetteers, Vol. I, p.307.

It refers to recent Community, distinct with different religious thought andideas.

Susan Bayly, Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society 1700 –

, Cambridge, 2004,pp.91-92.

Peer or Pir is a Persian term refers a Sufi spiritual Guide.

Letters and Petitions from Nagore Merchants, 24 August 1798, Colonial Record Office,London.

The Lord Subramanya Temple at Malaysia is a replica of Palanitemple.

Susan Bayly, Saint Goddess and Kings, op.cit.,pp.93-94.

Guardians or Trustees of Darghas.

Field Observation by the Research Scholar, Nagore Dargah, dated13.05.2012.

It is an Arabic word refers to God, The word has cognates in other Semitic languages, including

Alah in Aramaic, Elohim in Hebrew

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Knowledgeable scholar in religious matter.

It is a Persian Word which describes Biographical Anthology of Sufi.

M.M.Pickthall, The Cultural Side of Islam, Kitab Bhavan, Delhi, 1961, p.15.

Robin Rinehart, Contemporary Hinduism : ritual, culture and practice, ABC-CLIO


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Silampoli Sellappan, Nenjai Allum Seera, Madras, 1978, p. 48.

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see also Thirunavukkarasar Devaram, Thanithiruthandagam, Uma Pathippagam, Thirupugalur,

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Manickavasagar Thiruvasagam, Sundarar Devaram, Thiruppanandal Madam Publication.

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Sirappuranam, Nattu Padalam, Stanza: 41.

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M.M. Ismail, Islam and Tamil Culture, Madras, 1977, pp. 56-58.

Kumarakuruparar, Muthukumarasamy Pillaitamil, Stanza 42

Arunagirinathar, Thirupagal Thirattu, Thenindiya Saiva Siddhantha Pathippu Kazhagam, Chennai,

, p. 82.

Born in 1842 in Kalangudi, Tirunelveli district his original name is Seyed Abdul Worid. Also see – Islamian Tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru Vol. IV. P.M.Ajmal Khan, Madurai Kamaraj University Publication,1997, pp.273-275. It may also refer to God and his Prophet in different context

It may also refer to God and his Prophet in different context.

C.Nainar Mohammed, Masthan Sahib and Thayumanavar – a comparative study (Tamil), Umaru

Pathippagam, Tiruchirappalli, 1993, pp.18-19

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Delhi, 1991, p.24

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C.Nainar Mohammed, Masthan Sahib and Thayumanavar, op.cit., pp.165-174

Nandeeswarakkanni, Stanza, pp.1-12. Also see C.Nainar Mohamed, Masthan Sahib and

Thayumanavar, op.cit., p.123

Masthan Sahib Padalgal, Stanzas pp.979-1029 (Total 51 stanzas)

Gnanamani Malai, Stanza, 106, 234, 59

Appar Devaram – 257-3,11 Sundaramurthy Nayanar Padal, Thevaram Sixth Thirumarai, 252-253.

Gnanapukalchi, 4; also see Shayku Peer Mohamed Wali, Meyygnana Padalkal, Anjuwannam Peer

Muhammadiya Association, Thucklay, 1995, pp. 105-110.

A.Veluppillai, Tamil Ilakkiyathil Kalamum Karuttum, Madras, 1969, p. 145.

Asadullah Khan, History of the Arab contact with Tamilagam from the Beginning upto 1400 AD,

Chennai, 2011, pp. 22-27.